By Daniel C. Snell
A significant other to the traditional close to East deals scholars and normal readers a entire evaluation of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good.
- Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
- Places specific emphasis on social and cultural historical past
- Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds
- Provides an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of study
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In Egypt, the fragmented socio-political order in the first ‘‘Intermediate Period’’ was roughly contemporary. In the Levant, the so-called ‘‘Intermediate (Early/Middle Bronze) Period’’ showed an archaeological picture dominated by pastoralism and decline of urban life. As usual, the periphery was more decisively affected, while the main core of urbanization, in lower Mesopotamia, could better resist the troubles. The last century of the third millennium, when the crisis was already well advanced in the peripheral areas, was dominated in the river valleys by the third dynasty of 10 Mario Liverani Ur (2112–2004), which represented the most efficient and stable state organization that Mesopotamia ever experienced, in earlier or later times.
Half a century of ‘‘feudal’’ fragmentation halted the imperial expansion, and the smaller states west of the Euphrates were able to keep their independence and restore equilibrium in the area. The case of Babylonia was different. After the end of the Kassite dynasty, and after the brilliant reign of Nebuchadnezzar I (1125–1104), the kingdom suffered from Elamite and Assyrian forays, and from nomadic infiltration of the Arameans along the corridor between the Tigris and the Zagros and later also of the Chaldeans along 16 Mario Liverani the lower Euphrates.
Astrologers continued to record the position of the stars and the historical events according to their time-honored tradition, and Akkadian literary texts, omen collections, and lexicographical lists were still copied in the schools as before. The Persian empire was in a sense a synthesis of different traditions, among which the Babylonian tradition was predominant. The empire inherited from Assyria the very idea of empire, and the basic features of the celebrative apparatus. It inherited from Elam the federal system of governance that had been typical of the Iranian peoples for a long time.
A Companion to the Ancient Near East by Daniel C. Snell