By Mennatallah Ali
Kind 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prolonged, revolutionary metabolic affliction characterised by way of persistent hyperglycemia. even if its major physiological abnormalities are insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, the categorical underlying determinants of those metabolic defects stay doubtful. There are advanced interactions among genetic, epigenetic, environmental and behavioral elements that give a contribution to the advance of diabetes. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions were used for diabetic administration. over the last few years, learn has began to concentrate on using novel adjuvant medicines as antioxidants and anti inflammatory medicines for greater administration, because it was once printed that either oxidative tension and irritation play a serious position within the affliction pathogenesis. hence, the advance of antidiabetic medicines which may opposite insulin resistance is a possible healing objective. even if antidiabetic medicines can be powerful in bettering glycemic keep watch over, they don't seem to be powerful in solely combating the development of pancreatic ß-cells harm mediated by means of power hyperglycemia-induced decline in intracellular antioxidants. consequently, antioxidant and anti inflammatory remedy could be regarded as an accessory to the widely used oral antidiabetics
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Extra info for A new approach in Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment: Evaluation of the beneficial effect of L-cysteine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Increased release of various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-Į (TNF-Į), IL-6, MCP-1 and resistin; mainly from visceral fat and leptin; mainly from subcutaneous fat, together with decreased release of adiponectin contribute to the whole body insulin resistance (67). Figure (3) shows how inflammation contributes to develop insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inflammation is triggered in the adipose tissue by macrophages, which form ring-like structures surrounding dead adipocytes.
Pharmacological effects of metformin 1- Antihyperglycemic effect Metformin exerts a range of actions that counter insulin resistance and decrease hyperglycemia by reducing fasting and postprandial blood glucose(159). The glucose-lowering efficacy of metformin requires a presence of at least some insulin because metformin does not mimic or activate the genomic effects of insulin. The precise mechanisms through which metformin exerts its glucose lowering effects are not entirely understood. However, its primary mode of action appears to be increasing 41 hepatic insulin sensitivity, resulting in decreased hepatic glucose output through suppression of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.
It was showed by in-vitro studies that cysteine mimics many of the chemical properties of homocysteine, which is known to increase the risk of the cardiovascular diseases (146). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) N-acetyl-L-cysteine is a cysteine precursor that is rapidly absorbed and converted to circulating cysteine by deacetylation. It is used as an antioxidant and as a mucolytic due to its ability to break disulphide bonds in the mucous. It has liver protecting effects, so it is a well-established antidote for acetaminophen overdose (147).
A new approach in Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment: Evaluation of the beneficial effect of L-cysteine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by Mennatallah Ali